Examining Social Insurance Participation among the Nomadic Population of Mongolia: A Survey of Herders in Nine Provinces
Munkhbayar Byambaa Kyohei Yamada
One-third of Mongolia's nomadic population lives in poverty, and their living conditions, which highly depend on the weather, are unstable. Therefore, it is vital for them to receive help, such as social insurance, from the government. However, only one-fifth of herders are enrolled in available social insurance programs, and it is important to examine the factors associated with their participation. Using an original survey of herders conducted in August–September 2020 in nine provinces, this study investigates the determinants of herders' participation in social insurance schemes. Several hypotheses regarding potential determinants of participation are tested, including (1) material conditions, (2) access to information, (3) descriptive social norms, and (4) political trust. The findings indicate that material conditions, particularly the number of livestock owned, descriptive social norms, and educational level are positively and significantly associated with herders' social insurance participation. Responses to open-ended questions support the findings of the quantitative analyses.