GENDER, MIDDLE MANAGER MANAGEMENT, AND PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Suhaeniti Sangyub Ryu
By applying Moore (1995) concept of distinctive managerial functions - managing upward, downward, and outward -, this study attempts to understand the impacts of middle-level management functions on organizational performance; and tries to investigate gender impacts on the middle-level management and performance linkages. This study employs Indonesian Family Life Survey 4 (IFLS4) crosssectional data and applies Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method to analyze some hypotheses constructed. The results indicate the significant impacts of managing downward negatively and managing outward positively on organization performance. Meanwhile, managing upward does not give the significant impact on organization performance. On the other hand, gendered managing outward effects on organization performance are strongly positive significant for female managers and strongly negative significant for males. For both male and female managers, managing downward gives significant positive impacts on organization performance, but males’effect is much greater than females. Lastly, the gendered managing upward effect is not significant related with organization performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that public managers need to give more efforts on managing outward by creating more networking to increase the organization performance. In contrast, the principals may need to modify their strategy to manage their subordinates because current managing downward strategy gives negative impacts on the organization performance.