Modeling Public Management: What we know and what we need to know
The field of public management has accumulated a great deal of knowledge, but current studies have investigated public management only partially and have failed to incorporate all aspects of public management. To correct any possible biases and encompass all of the aspects of public management, O'Toole and Meier (1999) proposed a contingent model of public management, which predicts organizational performance as a function of previous performance, organizational environments, organizational stability, internal management, and external management. Since their proposal, the model has been tested and mentioned 256 times as of this writing, and 30 peer-reviewed articles have actually adopted the model for their analysis. This study aims at investigating the validity and reliability of the model by reviewing the 30 journal articles that adopted the O'Toole-Meier model. After the review, this study suggests future research questions to develop the model.