The State Policy Processes of Tax and Expenditure Limitations in the U.S.
Koomin Kim Seunghoo Lim
Previous research and theory on policy innovation and diffusion have developed explanatory factors for the adoption of TELs. However, past research on which states adopt TELs have only examined the first adoption dates. However, since the state policy making regarding TELs is more complicated—TELs have been proposed and failed, and multiple TELs have been passed since 1970. These previous studies have limitations and have not considered the comprehensive policy making process of TELs adoption and revision. In this respect, this research empirically examines the differentiated process of adoptions through event history analysis (EHA) using state data from 1970 to 2006. This study reveals the comprehensive policy making process of TEL adoption that can be summarized as follows: (1) having a direct democracy initiative continuously affects the adoption process of TELs; (2) states will imitate other similar states' TELs based on size (expenditure) during the agenda setting process; and (3) Enactment failure of TELs is induced by anticipatory competition that states behave strategically, and successful passage of TELs are driven by direct democracy, and professionalized legislature rather than regional diffusion factors.