Graduate students often think that the thesis happens in two distinct phases: doing the research, and writing the thesis. This may be the case for some students, but more often, these phases overlap and interact with one another. Sometimes it's difficult to formalize an idea well enough to test, evaluate, analyze, and substantiate or prove it until you've written it up; the results of your analysis often require you to make changes that mean that you have to go back and rewrite parts of the thesis; and the process of developing and testing your ideas is almost never complete (there's always more that you could do) so that many graduate students end up "doing research" right up until the day or two before the thesis is turned in.
The divide-and-conquer approach works as well for writing as it does for research. A problem that many graduate students face is that their only goal seems to be finish the thesis? It is essential that you break this down into manageable stages, both in terms of doing the research and when writing the thesis. Tasks that you can finish in a week, a day, or even as little as half an hour are much more realistic goals. Try to come up with a range of tasks, both in terms of duration and difficulty.That way, on days when you feel energetic and enthusiastic, you can sink your teeth into a solid problem, but on days when you're unmotivated, you can at least accomplish and few small tasks and get them off your list.
It also helps to start writing at a coarse granularity and successively refine your thesis. Don't sit down and try to start writing the entire thesis from beginning to end. First make notes on what you want to cover; then organize these into an outline (which will probably change as you progress in your research and writing). Start drafting sections,beginning with those you're most confident about. Do not feel obligated to write it perfectly the first time: if you can't get a paragraph or phrase right, just write something (a rough cut, a note to yourself, a list of bulleted points) and move on. You can always come back to the hard parts later; the important thing is to make steady progress.
When writing a thesis, or any paper, realize that your audience is almost guaranteed to be less familiar with your subject than you are.Explain your motivations, goals, and methodology clearly. Be repetitive without being boring, by presenting your ideas at several levels of abstraction,and by using examples to convey the ideas in a different way.
Having a writing friend? is a good idea. If they're working on their thesis at the same time, so much the better, but the most important thing is that they be willing to give you feedback on rough drafts, meet regularly to chart your progress and give you psychological support, and preferably that they be familiar enough with your field to understand and review your writing.
A Creative Process
Writing a master's thesis is a creative process. Thus its nature and progress can depend very much on the candidate and the subject matter. However a few general principles should be kept in mind:
An overall plan for the thesis should be compiled as early as possible and discussed with your supervisor. A plan should not be binding, but should be discussed and modified where necessary as research and analysis proceed. It is a good idea for candidates to have a draft outline plan together with a timetable pinned on a notice board in front of them so that at every moment they are aware of where they are and of their immediate goals.
Key technical issues should also be addressed in early planning stages. For example, criticism of statistical analysis is common among examiners' reports. The candidate should ensure that adequate statistical planning for the project is undertaken early in the project. Advice may be sought from supervisors or from other academic who are experienced in the statistical difficulties which can arise in many areas. Time spent with these people should lead to a sound experimental design with data capable of being analyzed according to standard statistical procedures.
Writing should commence as soon as possible. Even starting with very rough notes for paragraphs or chapters can give a good early psychological boost. Thesis writing does not necessarily have to start with chapter one. Write the easiest sections or chapters first. Again this can encourage a sense of progress and achievement. It is common for conclusions and introductions to be written last when candidates have a thorough awareness of the purpose and implications of their research. Bibliographies should not be left to do until last. With word processing, these can mostly be compiled as the reading and research progresses.
Candidates should do all their writing on a computer word processor.
If they have had no previous experience they should arrange with their
supervisor to have appropriate instruction. Word processors are wonderful
tools, especially for thesis writing. Candidates who are not familiar
with the features of a major word processing systemfrom data base managing
to spell checking to footnotingare putting themselves at a serious disadvantage.
Great care must be taken at all times to protect every computer file with
multiple backup copies, and not all stored at the same location. It is
also a good idea to make periodic hard copies, i.e. printouts, of your
work. Research data, notes and chapter drafts may represent several years
intense effort by the candidate and may be impossible to recreate if they
are lost through some electronic, technical or other misfortune.
Draft sections or chapters should be discussed with your supervisor
as early as possible. Your supervisor has the duty to examine these carefully
and critically and return them promptly. Candidates have a right to have
considered feedback on whatever they show their supervisors.
Supervisors should see chapters at every stage, from rough notes,
to early drafts, to revised drafts, to the final version. Supervisors should
also see drafts of the whole thesis as soon as possible. While they
may have commented on individual chapters shown to them at different times,
they may also suggest revisions when all the chapters are seen together
in the context of the thesis as a whole.
It is extremely unwise for candidates to submit a thesis or
parts of a thesis for examination that have not been seen and approved,
in their final form, by the supervisor.
In some disciplines (and sub-disciplines), candidates may be encouraged
to publish the results of their research when their thesis is completed.
Candidates should discuss publishing matters with their supervisors and
there should be a clear understanding about issues of authorship, choice
of journal, timing of publication, etc. Where both supervisor and candidate
are co-authors each has the right to expect that such publications will
not be excessively delayed.
Some General Considerations in Writing a Proposal or Thesis
Graduate students, and some faculty members, are frequently quite concerned
about the exact format of a thesis and the Graduate School provides
a standardized guide for the format. (Past submitted theses are not always a reliable duide to your thesis.) Additionally,
you can obtain a thesis template which provides a general outline
for your thesis: Where to put your statement of problem, where to
state your hypothesis,etc. Regardless of the exact outline you follow,
continuous considerations for the following overriding principles will
A. A thesis is a piece of written communication. Writing a thesis
is not merely an act of theory formulation, hypothesis deduction, data
collection or analysis. When you write your thesis, those activities
are already done. Remember that the thesis is basically a piece of
written communication. To be effective, your communication should be clear
and direct. Write what you mean to communicate and don't obfuscate.
Your thesis, like all good communications, must have a central
message. Lead your readers through this central message or argument from
the beginning to the end and don't digress.
B. Your audience is not only the professors on your committee. Your
thesis advisor and committee members are not the only audience of
your thesis. They are the gatekeepers who ensure that the quality
of your thesis meet certain professional standards. Don't write to
impress the committee. Instead, aim at communicating to an educated audience
in the scientific community (e.g., imagine writing to another graduate
student in another university).
C. Writing a thesis is not filling out a form. Your overall thesis
is one continuous presentation. There is a logical sequence to it and every
part is related to other parts as well as to your central theme. Outlines
and formats are meant to help you in preparing this logical sequence. Don't
sacrifice logical sequence and connectedness of parts for the sake of format.
Chapters, titles, and headings are meant to be dividers and labels throughout
your manuscript to guide readers through your thinking. They are not part
of the text nor do they serve as connectors between different parts of
your text. The logic and continuity of presentation must be in the text
itself. A strategy is to write the thesis without headings and insert
the headings after you are done.
D. Your thesis is a presentation of an argument. Through your
thesis, you are presenting an argument to the scientific community.
To you, what is important may be that you have discovered an important
fact, made a contribution to the literature, etc. The scientific community,
however, says show me and convince me. To be effective, you must lead the
audience through your study. Basically, you must tell them several things:
What is the background of the study? What did you do to seek answers to
your questions? and What were the answers? Often times, chapters 1 and
2 correspond to the first question, chapter 3 corresponds to the second
question, and chapters 4 and 5 correspond to the last question. You need
not rigidly adhere to these chapter formats. However, you need to lead
your readers through these three questions regardless of format.
A thesis serves the primary purpose of training the student in the
processes of scholarly research and writing under the direction of members
of the graduate faculty. After the student has graduated and the thesis
is "published," it serves as a contribution to human knowledge, useful
to other scholars and perhaps a more general audience as well. Therefore,
the Graduate School of International Relations have established format
standards that a thesis must meet before it receives final approval
as a graduate requirement. This publication sets forth those standards.
Some thesis requirements are purely technical; others have been established
to ensure that certain vital information is presented in an orderly, uniform
The requirements in this publication apply to all theses. They are,
however, designed to allow for maximum flexibility in minor matters in
which standard practices vary among academic disciplines (e.g., reference
forms). Thus, while you will need to comply with the specifications given
here, you will probably also need to consult a specialized manual of scholarly
style in your field or the style sheet of a leading journal.
Be careful if using another thesis as a model for yours; remember
that this guide is revised from time to time, and you must meet current
thesis requirements. You have a fair amount of discretion with regard
to style, but be consistent in format throughout the thesis.
It is expected that the thesis will be written in clear, grammatically
correct, that words will be spelled and divided correctly, and that punctuation
will be standard and appropriate. Therefore, it is advisable to have a
good desk dictionary and a handbook for grammar and usage during the writing
and revision processes.
Most important in typing a thesis is consistency of format and adherence
to the specific instructions given in this guide. It is important to note
that all theses must be double or one-and-a-half spaced and pages must
be numbered throughout. For the final copy, superscripts and subscripts
must be typed and equations and symbols must be either typed or neatly
A thesis must be typewritten on A4 metric size paper (21 cm x 29.7
cm) in a clear and legible font (e.g., Times 12 or Arial 10) using a laser
writer, or some other printing device which gives a clear, legible result.
A xerox, multilith, or mimeograph copy is acceptable if it is made from
a well-typed original and the image is clean, clear, dark and sharp. The
copy should be free of lines, shadows, and other marks.
The body of the thesis must be double spaced. Footnotes, bibliographical
entries, long quoted passages, and items in lists and tables may be single
Non-typed materials such as symbols, equations, formulae, diacritical
marks, etc. should be in black ink.
Text material is typed on one side of the paper. The manuscript is to
be neat in appearance and without error.
Use a standard typeface of 10- 11-, or 12-point size. Do not use italic
(script) print except for foreign words, book and journal titles, and special
emphasis. If you wish, you may use larger size type for the title of the
thesis and for chapter headings, as long as it is not larger than
18 point. Boldface type may also be used on the title page and for headings,
as well as in the text for special symbols or for emphasis. Reduced type
may be used within tables, figures, and appendices, but, in part because
of microfilming requirements, it should be at least 9 point in size and
must be completely legible. If you are photocopying an illustration from
another source and the copy is not clear and sharp, you may need to photo-enlarge
the type for readability.
If at all possible, use the same font for the entire thesis but,
if necessary, you may use different fonts within tables, figures, and appendices.
To avoid distracting variations, changes in the font should be kept to
Chapter Head Pages and Page Layout.
Begin each chapter on a new page. Do the same with each element of the
front matter (list of tables, acknowledgments, etc.), the reference section,
and each appendix. Try to avoid typing a heading near the bottom of a page
unless there is room for at least two lines of text following the heading.
Instead, you should simply leave a little extra space on that page and
begin the heading on the next page. If you wish to use a "display" page
(a page that shows only the chapter title) at the beginning of chapters
or appendices, be sure to do so consistently.
A margin of AT LEAST 4.0 cm MUST be left at the top and left side of each
page and a margin of AT LEAST 2.5 cm on the right and bottom. The margin
is determined by the last letter or character in the longest line on the
page. Everything on the page (including the page number, footnotes, etc.)
must conform to these requirements. Text should be at least a double-space
from the page number. These stringent margin requirements are necessary
because all edges are trimmed during the binding process.
Format of Thesis
The manuscript consists of three main parts: the preliminaries, the text,
and the references. And it is to be arranged in the following sequence:
f. List of Symbols, tables, figures, illustrations, etc. (if applicable)
g. Acknowledgment or acknowledgments. (optional)
2. The text.
3. The references.
a. Appendices. (if applicable)
c. Glossary. (if applicable)
e. Addendum. (if applicable)
Figure captions may be placed on facing pages if desired. Margins on facing
pages should be reversed; that is, the larger margin will always be on
the binding side of the page. The page number (unless centered) should
be placed on the left instead of the right on a facing page.
Use of Single Spacing.
Single spacing is allowed in certain limited cases: the table of contents,
block quotations, headings, table titles, figure captions, tables, appendices.
It is also permitted within items in the list of tables, list of figures,
bibliography/reference list, and notes, but double spacing must be used
between items in these instances.
Every page is numbered except 1) the title page, which is counted but
not numbered, and 2) the blank page of copyright notice (following the
title page), which is neither counted nor numbered.
The preliminary pages are numbered in lower-case Roman numerals, beginning
with the approval page, which is number ii.
The text and reference pages are numbered in Arabic numerals, beginning
with 1 on the first page of the text and continuing consecutively to the
end of the manuscript including appendices and addenda, if any.
Every page in the thesis, including those with tables and figures,
must be counted. Use small Roman numerals for the front matter and Arabic
numbers for the text (the text must begin with page 1). The only exceptions
are the following: the permission-to-copy page in master's theses and the
vita in doctoral theses are not included in the numbering system and thus
are not counted at all; the title page and signatory page, although counted,
should never show a page number (they are actually pages i and ii, respectively).
The first page that shows a number is the Abstract, and it always begins
on page iii. Page numbers should appear on every page that is counted,
but you may use a style that "hides" the page number on the first page
of each major section (e.g., the first page of each chapter and each appendix).
If you choose this style, be consistent in its use. Make sure that all
pages are present and in proper order when they are numbered. It is not
permissible to number a page with "a" or "b" or to skip numbers. Do not
embellish page numbers with punctuation (dashes, periods, etc.), and do
not type the word "page" before the page number.
Page Number Location.
Page numbers should be placed in the upper right-hand corner at least
2.5 cm from both edges. The preliminary pages of the thesis and first
page of each chapter may be numbered at the center bottom, at least 2.5
cm from the bottom of the page.
Many authors type their own theses on personal computers. The hardware
and software you use must be capable of producing the variety of characters,
spacing, etc., required for the proper presentation of your work, and you
must be sufficiently skilled in the operation of the computer in order
to prepare correct and appropriate final copy.
THE TEXT OF THE THESIS
A thesis has three major parts: the front matter (abstract, table
of contents, etc.), the text, and the back matter (references, appendices).
The text of the thesis is the subject of this section.
Tips on Organization and Headings
The text of the thesis is usually divided into chapters and provided
with introductory and concluding sections, which may or may not be designated
as chapters. You will probably also need subheadings within the chapters
to indicate the orderly progression of topics and their relation to each
other. In any case, you should decide on an appropriate system of headings
and apply it consistently throughout the thesis, including front
and back matter.
Two major types of headings are frequently used, one indicating levels
of headings by variations in capitalization, position, and formatting,
and one using a decimal system. All chapter headings should be typed consistently,
however, as well as all first-level subheadings, and so on. For headings,
work downward from the top without skipping levels. It is not necessary
to subdivide each chapter to the same degree (you might have first- through
fourth-level headings in one chapter but only first- and second-level headings
in another). Each level of heading should be clearly distinguished typographically
from the other levels, and the variations should be selected so as to reflect
in an obvious way the hierarchy of headings (that is, higher level headings
should look more important). Each subdivision of a first-level heading
must be a second-level heading according to your system for the thesis
as a whole, and each subdivision of a second-level heading must be a third-level
Always allow at least one extra line of space above subheadings, and
preferably below as well. Without this extra space, it is sometimes difficult
to distinguish headings from text. A heading must never appear alone at
the bottom of a page (a "widow") without at least two lines of text under
it. Also keep in mind the conventional wisdom that a unit cannot be divided
into a single part, or "you can't have an A without a B." If you have only
one second-level heading under a given first-level heading, you should
probably incorporate it into the text or, if subdivision is really called
for, create another second-level heading. Addition- ally, if you have only
one appendix, call it simply Appendix, not Appendix A.
Documentation of Sources in the Text
Source citations are required in the text whenever you use a direct quotation,
paraphrase another author's words, or include specific information that
is not common knowledge (and is not the result of your own research reported
in the thesis). Systems of source citation fall generally into three
categories: (1) parenthetical author-date-page documentation; (2) citation
by number, keyed to a numbered reference list; and (3) footnotes or endnotes.
You should select one of these systems and use it throughout the thesis.
A thesis using one of the first two systems could also include footnotes
presenting non-source information or comments. Whichever style of documentation
you use, the references in the text must correspond exactly to the listing
of sources at the end of the thesis. You should make certain that
all items are included in the bibliography or reference list, that authors'
names are spelled consistently and correctly, and that the dates are the
same in both the text and the reference list.
This system is used frequently by authors in the social sciences, including
psychology, sociology, and most areas of education. It is also used, in
a slightly altered form, by some authors in the humanities and by many
fields of the natural sciences. The American Psychological Association's
Style Manual provides detailed instructions in this style, as do the style
sheets of many academic journals that use this style. The author-date-page
system indicates, in parentheses at the end of a statement, the author's
last name, the year of publication, and the pertinent page number(s). In
this system, citations must correspond to a bibliography/reference section
arranged alphabetically by author, so that a reader can easily locate the
complete source. In some styles, the page number is omitted.
Numbered Reference System.
This system is used most often by authors in the natural sciences. Detailed
instructions are provided by manuals such as the American Chemical Society's
Style Manual and by the style sheets of journals in these fields. In a
numbered reference system, numbers enclosed within parentheses or brackets
or typed as superscripts correspond to a numbered bibliography or reference
list at the end of the text.
Footnotes and Endnotes.
This system is often used by authors in the humanities and fine arts. The
Modern Language Association's Style Manual and the Chicago
Manual of Style as well as journal style sheets provide detailed information
on this style. Footnotes or endnotes correspond to an alphabetically arranged
bibliography. This system uses superscript numbers in the text to indicate
notes that may be placed at the bottom of the page, the end of the chapter,
or the end of the complete text (preceding the bibliography). The numbering
system for notes may be consecutive throughout the text or may begin again
with 1 in each chapter. The format for the notes themselves varies among
academic disciplines. Make certain when you pick a format that it is a
note style, not a bibliography style. For example, authors' names in notes
are not inverted, as they usually are in bibliographies, and internal punctuation
is different. If notes are included at the bottom of the page, each note
must begin on the same page as the corresponding superscript number in
the text. A footnote may, however, be continued on the following page if
FRONT AND BACK MATTER
Front Matter The front matter of the thesis includes these
items, in the order given:
Permission-to-copy page (master's theses only; not counted or numbered)
Abstract (always begins on page iii)
Table of Contents
Lists of Figures, Illustrations, Abbreviations,
Maps or Tables (in no particular order)
Preface or Acknowledgments (optional)
Epigraph or Frontispiece (optional)
The Abstract is the first page that will show a page number and
is required in all theses.
The Table of Contents is also required. The Acknowledgments
page is optional and must always be the last page of the front matter (unless
an Epigraph or Frontispiece is included). A Preface usually is not necessary
in the thesis, but if used it often will incorporate the acknowledgments.
If separate from the Acknowledgments, the preface comes first A dedication
may be included in the Acknowledgments, but a separate dedication page
is not permitted in the official copy of the thesis. An "Introduction"
may be chapter 1 or it may precede chapter 1, but it must be numbered as
part of the text, not as part of the front matter.
Title Page. The title page is the first page of the thesis (but it does not show a number). Minimum margins on the title page
are the same as for other pages. Use appropriate vertical spacing between
the individual items on the page so as to produce an attractive format
within these specifications. Extra space may be used to good effect above
and below the thesis title. Center all lines horizontally on the
page. A sample title page appears near the end of this guide. Be sure to
type all items line for line exactly as shown.
"The International University of Japan" and "The Graduate School" (no
quotes) must appear as the first two lines on the title page. In addition,
be careful to use the correct title of your major on the line that reads
"A Thesis in ____."
Type the title of the thesis using capital letters throughout.
If it occupies more than one line, double space between lines. Express
formulas, symbols, and abbreviations in words on the title page, even if
the "shorthand" forms are conventional in your field of study and are used
throughout the thesis itself. Be careful to punctuate appropriately.
Use your legal name as it appears on your records in the Office of the
GSIR. Your name must appear in exactly the same form each time it is used
on the thesis (i.e., title page, permission-to-copy page,
signatory page, vita).
On the date line, indicate the month and year of degree conferral (not
the date of the defense or the date you submit your thesis). Degrees
are conferred in June.
A statement granting IUJ the right to make single copies of the thesis
appears following the title page in master's theses only. It occupies a
separate, unnumbered page (do not include it in the pagination) and need
not be included in personal copies Type this page exactly as shown in the
example near the back of this guide, and don't forget to sign it when you
submit the final copy to the Office of the GSIR.
Whether or not you choose to include a copyright line on the title page,
the thesis is your intellectual property. In signing the permission
statement you are not relinquishing any rights, but you are making it legally
possible for the University to produce a photocopy if someone wants to
consult your work.
When you submit the final copy of your thesis, you must include one
signatory page with the original signatures of all your committee members
or readers. The signatures indicate that these persons have approved the
thesis as a complete and final work requiring no further alteration
as an archival document. Before signing, the page must be printed or copied
onto thesis-quality paper. The signatory page follows permission-to-copy
page in a master's thesis. It does not show a page number. A sample
signatory page appears near the end of this guide.
The signatory page will be reviewed for format and accuracy when your
thesis is submitted for format review. However, in some cases, the
signatory page will be signed before the format review can be accomplished.
Therefore, the Office of GSIR will review any signatory page on demand.
It can be faxed, mailed, or hand-carried and will be checked immediately.
This alleviates the need to have signatory pages re-signed due to errors
in formatting, spelling, or professorial titles. Please make every effort
to have the signatory page approved by the Office of GSIR before obtaining
The examiner must sign the signatory page. If one of the signatories
has a dual role (e.g., thesis advisor and head of the department),
list both roles under the professorial title. If the sharing of roles leaves
you with fewer than the required number of signatures (see below), an additional
reader must be added.
Every thesis must contain an abstract. An abstract is a concise summary
of the thesis, intended to inform prospective readers about its content.
It usually includes a brief description of the research, the procedures
or methods, and the results or conclusions. An abstract should not include
internal headings, parenthetical citations of items listed in the reference
section, diagrams or other illustrations. The abstract follows the signatory
page and has the heading "Abstract." Like the text, it must be double or
one-and-a-half spaced. It always begins on page iii. There is no restriction
on the length of the abstract in the thesis.
Table of Contents.
The table of contents is essentially a topic outline of the thesis.
It is compiled by listing the headings in the thesis down to whichever
level you choose. Keep in mind that there usually is no index in a thesis,
and thus a fairly detailed table of contents can serve as a useful guide
for the reader. The table of contents must appear immediately after the
abstract and should not show a listing for the abstract, the table of contents
itself, frontispiece, epigraph, or the vita. All other items in the thesis,
however, should be listed. List all chapter headings and other major divisions.
Be consistent in the level of heading that you list; e.g., if you list
the second-level subheadings from one chapter, you should list the second-level
subheadings from all chapters that contain this level. Each level of subheading
should be consistently indented a few spaces more than the preceding level.
If items in the table of contents are single spaced, use dot leaders to
connect each heading with its page number; dot leaders are optional with
Be sure that the headings as listed in the table of contents match word
for word and letter for letter the headings in the text. Do not, however,
underline headings that are underlined in the text (though individual terms
or book titles may be underlined if appropriate). Align all page numbers
on the right. Double check to make certain that the listed page numbers
are accurate; remember that they may change as you make revisions.
In listing appendices, indicate the title of each appendix, and include
the same levels of headings (if applicable) as for the text. If you use
separate title pages (display pages) for appendices, the number of the
title page is the one that appears in the table of contents.
List of Figures and List of Tables.
Include a list of figures (illustrations) and a list of tables if you have
one or more items in these categories. Use a separate page for each list.
List the number, caption, and page number of every figure and table in
the body of the thesis. You should also list figures and tables in
the appendix if they have individual numbers and captions. If captions
are long, you may stop when you reach the first period (or other logical
stopping point) in the caption. If you use preceding-page captions, list
the page on which the figure or table actually appears, not the caption
An acknowledgment page is required only if the author has received permission
to use previously copyrighted material or is obliged to acknowledge grant
sources. Otherwise, it is optional. If included, it is used to express
the author's professional and personal indebtedness. When writing the acknowledgments,
be sure that your use of "person" is consistent. If you begin with references
to "the author," continue to use third person throughout. If you begin
with first person ("I," "me," "my"), use first person consistently.
Epigraph or Frontispiece.
Some authors include a quotation (epigraph) or illustration (frontispiece)
as the last of the preliminary pages. Neither should be listed in the table
of contents, though a frontispiece is sometimes included in the list of
illustrations. The source of an epigraph is indicated below the quotation
but is not listed in the bibliography or references unless it is also cited
in the text. Do number the page.
The back matter (or end matter) of the thesis may include some or
all of the following:
Bibliography or reference list (may be in back matter or at end of
Appendices (if any, they may come either before or after references)
Endnotes or Notes (if any, they may be in back matter or at end of
Bibliography or Reference List.
A thesis must include a bibliography or reference section listing
all works which are referred to in the text, and in some cases other works
also consulted in the course of research and writing. This section may
either precede or follow the appendices (if any), or may appear at the
end of each chapter. Usually, however, a single section is more convenient
and useful for both author and reader.
The forms used for listing sources in the bibliography/reference section
are detailed and complicated, and they vary considerably among academic
disciplines. For this reason, you will need to follow a scholarly style
manual or perhaps a recent issue of a leading journal as a guide in compiling
this section of the thesis. Also see section on "Documentation of
Sources in the Text" in this guide.
Material that is considered pertinent to the text of the thesis but
is somewhat tangential or very detailed raw data, quoted material too long
for the text, procedural explanations, etc.) may be placed in an appendix.
Appendices should be designated A, B, C, etc. (not 1, 2, 3 or I, II, III).
If there is only one appendix, it is called simply Appendix (not Appendix
A). The form for the heading is the same as that for a chapter title. The
heading pattern should follow the system you are using in the text for
If desired, separate display (title) pages preceding appendixes can
be used. If one appendix has such a display page, all appendices should
have them. These pages must be included in the numbering system, and the
number of the display page is the one that appears in the table of contents.
Titles of appendices must be listed in the table of contents.
Appendix material may be single spaced, and the type used in the body
of an appendix does not have to match that of the thesis text. However,
appendices must be numbered consecutively with the text of the thesis.
It is not acceptable to number the pages A-1, A-2, etc.
In general, margin and print-size requirements are the same as for the
rest of the thesis. Minor variations may be acceptable, however,
if required by the nature of the material. Consult the GSIR Office for
a ruling on specific items. Oversized items may be included as pocket material
or as foldout pages (see section on Oversized Materials below).
TABLES AND FIGURES
A table is a columnar arrangement of information, often numbers, organized
to save space and convey relationships at a glance. A rule of thumb to
use in deciding whether given materials are tables or figures is that tables
can be typed, but figures must be drawn. You may need to consult a style
manual in your field as an aid in preparing tabular material. A figure
is a graphic illustration (that is, it must be drawn or drafted) such as
a chart, graph, diagram, map, photograph, or plate. You may have figures
professionally prepared or may draft them yourself if the final product
is of high quality. Straight lines must be typed or drawn with a ruler
in black ink; words included in the figure should be typed unless there
are technical reasons why this is not possible. You may use color as a
means of distinguishing different areas in a figure, but be aware that
the color will be lost in the microfilmed copy.
Captions and numbering
Each table and each figure in the text must have a number and caption.
Number them consecutively throughout, beginning with 1, or by chapter using
a decimal system. In the latter case, the first table in chapter 2, for
example, would be table 2.1, the second would be table 2.2, and so on.
Do not number tables and figures by sections in the chapter (as 2.21).
In numbering appendix figures and tables, you may continue the consecutive
numbering system from the text or you may use a separate appendix system.
You do not have to give tables and figures in the appendix separate numbers
or include them in the list of figures and tables. They should be included
in the list, however, if you number them separately. Placing tables and
figures in text. To make it easy for your readers to find tables or figures,
place a table or figure immediately after the first mention of it in the
text--on the same page if there is room, or on the following page. Alternatively,
you may group tables and/or figures together at the end of each chapter.
Tables or figures of peripheral importance to the text may be placed in
an appendix. All tables and figures must be referred to in the text by
number (not by a phrase such as "the following table").
Sources of Tables and Figures
If a figure or table is taken from another source, indicate the source
at the bottom, either at the end of the caption or in a note beginning
"Source: . . . ." Source notes are not numbered, even if there are other
numbered notes. If a figure or table is photocopied from its source, be
sure the print is large enough to be readable.
If you are having trouble fitting a table or figure within the margins,
even after relaxing the margins .25 inch on each side, consult the following
options and select the method you prefer.
Landscape Pages. You may place the table or figure sideways
(landscape) on the page. If you do so, rotate it 90 degrees counterclockwise
from its normal position. Place the table or figure caption sideways also
so that all parts can be conveniently read together. You must, however,
place the page number portrait style and in the same location as for other
Separate Page for the Caption.
You may use the entire typing area for the table or figures and place the
caption on a separate page preceding it. Type the caption so that it reads
in the same direction as the table or figure (landscape or portrait) .
If you use a facing page for the caption, reverse the location of the page
number and reverse the left and right margins (see previous section on
You may photo-reduce the body of the table or figure to meet margin requirements.
Do not reduce the caption or the page number. The size of the type should
be no smaller than 9 point after reduction.
You may place oversized material on a foldout page if necessary, but remember
that foldouts can be awkward to handle. Paper for foldouts must be xx cm.
wide and is usually xx or xx cm long. The left edge of the foldout page
should be even with the other pages of the thesis, and all folds
should be made vertically. Folds must be at least 2.5 cm from the right
side and at least xx cm. from the left side (this is to avoid damage to
the foldout when pages are trimmed for binding). The right edge of the
foldout sheet should line up with the right edge of other pages.
You may fold oversized items and include them as pocket material. When
the thesis is bound, the material will be placed in a pocket attached
to the inside back cover. Margin and paper requirements do not apply to
pocket material. Submit pocket material in an envelope labeled with your
name, graduation date, and the designation "Pocket Material" at the time
of the thesis submission. If the material is an appendix, list it
in the table of contents; if it is a table or figure, list it in the front
matter. Use "in pocket" in place of the page number in the table of contents
or list of figures or tables.
Photographic illustrations to be used in a thesis must be either
original photographs or high-quality reproductions. You may use color prints,
but it is important to realize that color does not reproduce on microfilm.
List and caption photographs as figures unless you wish to have a separate
list of photographs or plates.
Be sure that all photographs are permanently attached to the page. Use
dry-mounting tissue (applied with a warm iron), adhesive sheets, or permanent
spray adhesive. Do not use tape, rubber cement, or adhesive corners. If
they are not secure, you will be asked to re-mount them. Only original
photos may be mounted in a thesis; any other type of reproduction
must be copied directly onto the paper.
Plates and Tables. If you submit photographic plates, have them
produced on relatively lightweight stock. You may type or photograph figure
numbers, captions, and page numbers on the same page or type them on a
separate (facing or non-facing) page. Include them in the pagination even
if you cannot place a page number on them.
Plates and tables may be of various sizes within the overall limitations
that follow. If made on the same paper used for the body of the thesis,
the regular margin must be observed. Plates, tables, photos, etc., smaller
than 14.5 cm ~ 23 cm should be mounted neatly on numbered blank sheets
of A4 size paper. If the plates, tables, or graphs are too large to fit
within the margins, the sheet may be folded and mounted on a blank sheet.
The printing on the sheet, when folded, must fall within the regular margins
as measured on the blank sheet. The blank sheet is to be numbered in the
usual manner. On ruled graph paper, the lettering should be within the
ruled portion and regular thesis margins must be observed. Graphs,
drawings, and equations, lines, symbols, and lettering should be dark,
sharp, neat, and of quality, permanent materials.
Xerography. Xerox copies and duplicators tend to enlarge the
original about one percent. This may vary slightly from one machine to
the next, but this process of enlargement should be kept in mind so that
margins are not exceeded. GSIR will allow reasonable reduction of maps,
charts, graphs, tables, and figures provided that the accompanying text
is not smaller than the elite type (or Times 10). It will NOT allow the
text of the thesis to be reduced in such a way as to result in print
size smaller than elite type.
Reproduced in Thesis: If you include photographs or copyrighted illustrations
in a thesis, you must secure permission to reproduce them. To avoid
obtaining letters of permission, you may leave the illustrations out of
COPYRIGHT and AUTHORSHIP
Copyright Copyright is legal protection of intellectual property--in
this case, your thesis. This protection begins automatically as soon
as a work is created. It is up to you to decide if you wish to maintain
or register your copyright; IUJ has no requirement that you do either.
Your copyright gives you the exclusive right to print, reprint, copy, sell,
and prepare derivative works based on the copyrighted work. It protects
an author against anyone's infringement of these rights. There are, however,
limitations on your exclusive right:
Others may excerpt portions of your thesis for scholarly work
or research without obtaining your permission, if the borrowing is "fair
use" (see "Fair Use Defined" below). Of course, they must credit you as
the source. Anything beyond this "fair use" requires your permission.
In order to maintain your copyright, insert a copyright notice on the
thesis title page as shown in the example in this guide. This is
not required, but it signals to readers that you acknowledge your legal
rights and that you are the copyright owner. You may also choose to register
your claim to copyright. Registration is a legal formality that makes a
public record of your copyright. It is not a requirement for protection,
but would be your first step if you ever find it necessary to file a copyright
lawsuit. If there is a chance you might someday take someone to court for
using your work unlawfully (e.g., if you have developed a separately marketable
item such as a computer program), you may want to complete this procedure.
You may formally register your claim to copyright. Be sure to include
a copyright notice on the title page of the thesis if you plan to
register your copyright.
Materials Copyrighted by Others
You do not need permission to use works in the public domain, i.e., works
on which a copyright never existed and those on which the copyright has
expired; however, you must properly acknowledge such works. If you use
copyrighted works, you must not only acknowledge the source, but unless
use falls within the doctrine of "fair use" you may not include the material
without the written permission of the copyright holder.
Fair Use Defined. Fair Use may be defined as follows:
The fair use of a copyrighted work for purposes such as criticism, comment...and
scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining
whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the
factors to be considered shall include: 1. the purpose and character of
the use, including whether such use is for nonprofit educational purposes;
2. the nature of the copyrighted work; 3. the amount...of the portion used
in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and 4. the effect of the
use upon the...value of the copyrighted work.
In determining fair use of copyrighted material in theses the GSIR looks
for notice of previous copyright. If extensive use of copyrighted material
is found in your thesis, GSIR will expect to find also a letter from
the copyright holder granting permission. If not, GSIR will write to you
and request such a letter. Unless you obtain permission for GSIR to film
and sell the material, GSIR will delete the material in question when filming
copies for sale to the public. Obviously, fair use is both a privilege
and a source of confusion.
Letter of Permission. If your borrowing exceeds fair use (for
example, if you quote extensively from a copyrighted source or if you borrow
an entire creation such as a photograph, a cartoon, or a testing scale),
you must secure written permission. This permission should accompany the first submission of
your thesis. When you request letters of permission, be sure the
grantor is aware that the thesis will be "published" through GSIRs
masters program. If you are the copyright holder of the previously copyrighted
material, a letter from you to GSIR is sufficient. You are solely responsible
if you violate the copyright law; neither GSIR nor IUJ will be held liable.
Previously Published Work.
Work by the thesis author which is published prior to thesis
submission (or is shortly expected to be published) may be accepted as
part of the thesis, provided that the committee approves the work
and that the published material was written specifically to fulfill thesis
requirements. If you submit previously published copyrighted work and you
are not the copyright holder, a letter of permission from the copyright
holder must accompany the thesis.
If your thesis is composed of parts (published or unpublished),
a comprehensive introduction should be provided. It is also useful to have
a conclusion placing the parts in perspective to the whole and making recommendations
for future research. The styles used in previously published parts may
follow the styles required by the previous publishers; thus, you may use
different styles among parts. The pagination of the parts, however, must
follow thesis guidelines, i.e., numbering must be consecutive from
page one to the end of the thesis. Front matter is the same as for
any other thesis. In no case may work for a previous degree be submitted.
First Author Requirement.
The GSIR may permit you to submit multiple-authored work as thesis
material if you are first author of the work. Your contributions must be
clearly and fully indicated in a preface to the thesis.
Acceptability of Reprints.
Preprints and reprints are acceptable for inclusion in the thesis
if they meet type size, margin, and legibility requirements. If there are
problems, consult the GSIR Office. Material that does not quite meet the
usual type size and margin requirements may sometimes be placed in an appendix
or in a pocket. In such cases, a single display page in the body of the
thesis can be used to indicate (for example) a chapter number and
the title of the material, along with a designation such as "In Appendix
C" or "In Pocket."
You may not use any information that is restricted or cannot be disseminated
to the public in your thesis, because one of the primary intents
of the thesis effort is to communicate the results of thesis
authors' research to the scholarly community. In very unusual cases an
arrangement may be made to hold the thesis in the Library for a few
months before it is sent to GSIR (or in the case of a master's thesis,
before it is placed in circulation). If you believe that your thesis
requires this type of special handling, you may direct a request to the
Format In academic areas where research is most often published
in the form of journal articles, students may wish to have the format of
the thesis approximate that of a manuscript to be submitted for journal
publication. With very minor exceptions, this purpose can generally be
accomplished within the bounds of the requirements set forth in this guide.
The main body of the thesis, for example, may be relatively brief,
with such sections as the review of literature placed in an appendix. Tables
and figures whose importance to the text is tangential may also be handled
as appendix material. Or, as previously noted, the thesis may consist
of chapters that are essentially separate journal articles.
Below are several sources which may be consulted for style, grammar, etc.
You may also wish to use other manuals or journals in your specific field
and/or consult the reference section of the MLIC. Online sources are also
Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Achtert, Walter S., and Joseph Gibaldi, eds. The MLA Style Manual. New
York: Modern Language Association of America, 1985.
Dodd, Janet S., ed. The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors.
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1986.
Handbooks of Grammar, Usage, and Writing Style
Ebbitt, Wilma R., and David R. Ebbitt. Writer's Guide and Index to English.
7th ed. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1982.
Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed.
New York: Macmillan, 1979.
Sample Pages of Title, Signature, and Abstract Pages